In recent years EU members have experienced many of the same demographic trends; a declining fertility rate, an aging population and slowing rates of population growth. However, certainly amongst the western European countries, Portugal stands out. Its rate of population growth has dropped very quickly in recent years and it currently has one of the fastest declining populations in Europe. It is vital to highlight that if the trends of the past twenty or so years continue, Portugal in the next 10-15 years will face major problems caused by the combined effects of a falling birth-rate, a declining labour force, an aging population and emigration of both skilled and unskilled workers. With legislative elections in October 2015, it is the responsibility of the new government to attempt to formulate policies that will prevent a possible future decline in international competitiveness.